Motivation and Objectives

The overall goal of this workshop is to arrive at a synthesis of knowledge that will help people who work with intelligent user interfaces to predict and explain how users’ attitudes and behavior toward such systems (a) differ from one user to the next and (b) change over time.

Users often differ considerably in their attitudes and behavior with regard to (particular aspects of) intelligent user interfaces. Moreover, these preferences often change considerably over time.

For example, a part of an innovative intelligent interface may be considered amusing and potentially useful by User A but distracting and obviously useless by User B. At a later time, User A may no longer find the interface amusing, and User B may somehow have found out how to make good use of it after all.

Some of these differences and changes are due simply to the fact that the needs and capabilities of users can differ and change over time. But other factors are at work as well, such as (a) subjective evaluations of the often novel and controversial aspects of IUIs, such as proactivity and human-like system behavior; and (b) aspects of the process of forming preferences and making decisions about IUIs, which may, for example, involve quick heuristic assessments on the basis of limited experience.

Without an adequate understanding of such factors, designers and evaluators of IUIs are not in a good position to influence or predict how their systems will be used and accepted by a broad range of users over extended periods of time.

In most published research on intelligent user interfaces, these factors have received little attention. Largely for practical reasons, few studies are conducted over a long enough period of time to allow changes in users’ preferences to come to light. And in the usual short-term studies, differences among users in the ways in which they respond to a system are usually mentioned in passing, if at all, with most attention being devoted to average or typical responses.

This workshop is intended to remedy this imbalance by accumulating and interpreting a large case base of examples of differences of this sort that supports the derivation of predictive and explanatory models. The goal of the workshop will be to synthesize the contributions made by individual participants into a coherent picture that can be further developed and used by the participants and by other researchers.